Sunday, August 23, 2020

Research Paper for Computer Game Addicted free essay sample

From the time PC games advanced into family homes, guardians have thought about whether brutal computer games may adversely influence youngsters and adolescents. Today, guardians despite everything stress over the impacts of savage PC games and obviously it additionally stays a well known theme for the media. Notwithstanding, with a developing number of youngsters and adolescents investing over the top energy playing PC games, maybe guardians ought to be progressively stressed over young people dependent on PC games than the impacts of rough computer games. An assessment of the writing uncovers that the individuals who study computer game habit here and there differ on the extent of youngsters and adolescents dependent on PC games. In any case, most of studies recommend that roughly 5 to 10% of youth who play PC games become dependent. Contrasted with other mental troubles, (for example, despondency and nervousness), high school PC game dependence is clearly a moderately new issue looked by families. In that capacity, guardians may need precise or potentially accommodating data on the indications of PC game compulsion, the hazard factors for computer game habit, and methodologies for helping adolescents dependent on PC games after the issue creates. We will compose a custom paper test on Research Paper for Computer Game Addicted or on the other hand any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page As more specialists work with adolescents dependent on PC games and more analysts study the issue, they are getting better at identifying the indications of fixation, testing for computer game habit, and offering assistance to guardians with young people dependent on PC games. All things considered, there is a lot of disarray about precisely what PC game compulsion is and how guardians can help a youngster who appears to be definitely increasingly keen on playing in a virtual world than living in reality. Young people Addicted To Computer Games Advice for Parents 1. Until further notice, PC game enslavement isn't an authority mental turmoil. The chance of incorporating PC game compulsion in future versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is being discussed, however as of now it only an approach to depict somebody whose life gives off an impression of being contrarily affected by over the top gaming and is certainly not a perceived dependence. . Sound judgment proposes that the more a high schooler plays PC games, the more probable his play has traversed into the unfortunate degrees of play classification. In any case, since PC game fixation isn't an official finding there is no set number of hours out of every day meaning an en slavement. In this manner, notwithstanding estimating the normal number of hours he/she plays every day, it is maybe increasingly critical to look at how PC gaming is meddling with a youngsters social connections, school execution, disposition, and improvement of relational aptitudes. . Guardians who are concerned that their young person is investing an excessive amount of energy playing PC games and ignoring different exercises ought not accept that their kid will in the long run get exhausted of computer games and that gaming is essentially a stage. Valid, a few young people dependent on PC games do in the end create different interests and their gaming subsides†¦but there are likewise the individuals who grow significantly progressively outrageous gaming propensities as they get more seasoned. Guardians ought not rely upon the difficult dealing with itself. PC game dependence should be gone to when guardians perceive that it is causing noteworthy weakness in other significant zones of the teenss life. 4. Most children and adolescents can and do play PC games without building up an enslavement. Nonetheless, for certain youngsters there is no doubt that their PC use is unfortunate and unreasonable by anyones principles. For these youngsters, PC games take need over every single other movement, and improvement in different regions (for instance, school, connections, clubs, sports) is yielded with the goal that additional time can be spent before the PC screen. It truly doesn't make a difference if this is called a dependence or not. On the off chance that he keeps on playing notwithstanding encountering critical negative outcomes in different parts of his life (e. g. , overlooking school or companions) his PC gaming is an issue and it needs consideration. 5. For guardians, a most concerning aspect concerning young people dependent on PC games is the impact it has on their childs scholarly execution. On the off chance that an understudy routinely accomplished As and Bs before getting snared on PC games however is currently just bringing home Cs and Ds, guardians ought to build up exceptionally clear standards around gaming (counting the chance of a boycott) until marks have improved. Besides, it is important that any guidelines around gaming are set, yet reliably authorized. Setting confinements on PC games yet not finishing by upholding the new standards is conceivably more destructive than having no impediments by any means. 6. All in all, rewarding young people dependent on PC games necessitates that all PCs or potentially game consoles are expelled from their room. Obviously, this is unquestionably by all account not the only mediation, yet it is practically outlandish for a parent to effectively put restricts on gaming if the youngster can even now get to the game in the protection of a room. 7. The most mainstream treatment approach for PC game enslavement is subjective social treatment (CBT). CBT for gaming dependence includes testing and supplanting undesirable musings (perceptions) about PC games (e. . , my gaming doesnt hurt anybody) and acquainting slow social changes with diminish the time spent playing computer games (e. g. , compensations for adhering to new standards, fitting ramifications for time limit infringement, arranged suggestions to quit playing, programming arrangements, association in different exercises, recognizing and decreasing empowering practices, keeping away from ecological t riggers, and so on ). 8. Guardians looking for help from an advisor or analyst ought to consider meeting with that person preceding the main meeting with their kid. In spite of the fact that the issue of young people dependent on PC games is being paid attention to additional by emotional wellness experts, there are the individuals who excuse the chance of computer game option totally and center just around finding the main driver of the issue. The specialist ought to in any event think about how conceivable it is that PC game habit is the essential issue and offer direct treatment for this issue if important. Identified with this point†¦ 9. Now and again, PC game fixation is a side effect of another mental, enthusiastic, or relational issue. Valid, PC game dependence can be the essential introducing problem†¦but there is significant proof that over the top PC use additionally can be activated or exacerbated by challenges, for example, wretchedness, nervousness, and poor social aptitudes. For instance, a young person who is battling with discouragement may grasp PC games since he doesn't feel equipped for managing true issues. Obviously, going to web based games is probably not going to make the difficulties he faces in reality leave, and conceivably aggravates them even. In this model, the specialist must treat the unfortunate gaming, yet additionally the downturn which might be taking care of the habit. 10. In spite of the difficulties and inescapable dissatisfactions of managing high schooler PC game fixation, guardians must recall never to surrender adolescents dependent on PC games. Albeit changing unfortunate computer game propensities isn't in every case simple, young PC game habit can be dealt with particularly if guardians have the basic data and systems they requirement for arranging an effective computer game dependence intercession.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Jaelen Venable Essays - Films, Groundhog Day, Woodstock, Illinois

Jaelen Venable English 101 Dr. Hairdresser October 15 2015 Groundhog Day In the event that some state history rehashes itself, how might we change it? In Harold Ramis' Groundhog Day, Phil Connors, an arrogant egotistical climate forecaster, is stuck in time, causing a reoccurrence of that day. Phil gives various things to get a shot of the time circle, however basically nothing is working. A specific scene that stands apart all through the film is the scene with the vagrant in the city, this is when Phil at long last finds what his motivation in life is. In this scene, Phil passes the vagrant every day not caring whether he has a dinner to eat or a rooftop to rest under. At that point, when Phil stalls out in this time circle he chooses to give the vagrant cash to ideally change the reoccurring circle. As the film advances, Phil sees the vagrant passing on. Phil then attempts to accomplish all the more with the goal that he can spare the vagrant, this guides him in discovering his motivation throughout everyday life. In the start of the film, Phil Connors is exceptionally benevolent, just hoping to satisfy himself while not thinking about others all the while. An existence of self-centeredness is certifiably not a decent life to be lived. Phil is a moderately aged man that has a consistent profession and is by all accounts wealthy. He doesn't help the poor vagrant that he keeps on observing in the city for a significant stretch of time. Phil was blinded by his own narrow minded aspiration to assist this with keeping an eye on out. Five scenes pass by before Phil really chooses to support the vagrant and, after its all said and done he was as yet hesitant in helping him. Phil says I killed myself so often I don't exist any longer (Groundhog Day) since he has not discovered his motivation throughout everyday life yet. At first, Phil was not helping the vagrant since it was the proper activity, then again, he helped him since he trusted it would change time and he'd have the option to escape the ceaseless Groundhog Day. At last, when he winds up giving the vagrant some cash it appears to not transform anything. Could this be on the grounds that he was just paying special mind to his wellbeing? Phil then continues to give him considerably more cash, yet indeed it despite everything has no impact. Helping other people just to profit yourself is as yet egotistical. Phil Says I was in the Virgin Islands once. I met a young lady. We ate lobster, drank Pina Coladas. At dusk we had intercourse like ocean otters. That was a really decent day. For what reason would I be able to get that day again and again and over? (Groundhog Day) This statement not just shows how narrow minded Phil is now in his life yet in addition how he wishes that he could have been stuck in a day that was progressively helpful to him . In the following scarcely any scenes with the vagrant, Phil sees the poor man kicking the bucket much after he gave him cash. Phil sees that his assistance was insufficient, so he keeps on taking a stab at everything and anything he can to spare the destitute keeps an eye on life. This is the point at which we, the crowd, see Phil having an adjustment in heart. It is just through the experience we amass in our lives, that we can take in and develop from our slip-ups. Phil's involvement in the vagrant leads him to better himself and change his approaches to spare this keeps an eye on life. Once Phil acknowledges he can't spare the vagrant every day he goes on a way of helping everybody in the city of Punxsutawney. Phil Is propelled and discovers his motivation throughout everyday life. He is not, at this point narrow minded and begins to put others before himself. This is the reason he had the option to break out of the time circle and proceed with his customary life. The scene with Phil and the vagrant can be an incredible learning instrument for everybody. We ought not act naturally focused and think about others before ourselves. This will prompt an existence of harsh dejection. Once Phil begins helping individuals you can see his life begin to change and him become a more joyful individual. Phil changes

Wednesday, July 8, 2020

Arties Impressions of the Holocaust in Maus II - Literature Essay Samples

In â€Å"Maus II† by Art Spiegelman a series of three panels helps to encapsulate a continuous theme throughout the two part story. In these panels Artie and Francoise are in the car driving to assist Artie’s father who has just been left by his second wife. In the car Artie claims that â€Å"I never felt guilty about Richieu. But I did have nightmares about S.S. Men coming into my class†¦I wish I had been in Auschwitz with my parents so I could really know what they lived through† (16). Artie struggles with his relationship with his father, the death of his mother, his ghost-brother, and his attempt to recreate the Holocaust in a comic strip. All of these struggles connect back to his lack of common experience. He knows that due to the difference in their pasts, the difference in their upbringing, in many ways he is distanced from his family, people he cannot seem to fully understand. The series of panel mentioned before, along with the highlighted dialogue , capture Artie’s inability to connect with his family and their story due to a significant difference in their lack of shared history.The Holocaust, to Artie, was something horrible and unfathomable that his parents experienced and lived through. This part of his family history is not an element of life that makes him connected to his parents through lineage, but creates a gap in their relationship. He often worries that he does not understand fully their experiences, as he did in the car with his wife. Artie in asking his father for his story is attempting to understand, he wants to be able to capture the survival of his father, the survival of his family, and subsequently himself, in his art. However, many times throughout the graphic novel Artie reveals his despair in failing at his task. Even after the publication of his first graphic novel on his father’s story Artie worries that he has inappropriately captured his father and that the work can never do the experi ence justice. Additionally, Artie blames his father’s personality on the Holocaust. His father is stingy with money, willing to live on next to nothing. He is demanding, coarse, and judgmental. As a reason behind his personality Artie claims that his father’s past has shaped this character in him. That the Holocaust is the reason he will throw away nothing, and do nothing with money but save it. He believes that the Holocaust is the reason that his father is so surly, that surely his attitude is a product of his rough life. His father lived through a death trap, Artie can never measure up to that, and can never be as accomplished as his father. This is what Artie believes, what he thinks, what keeps him at arm’s length from his father. His lack of shared history, his inability to experience the Holocausts drives him into creating a world where his father and he cannot coexist in mutual understanding. In the car with his wife, Artie speaks of his ghost-brother a nd the impact that has had on his life. Richieu was the first son, the boy that knew the Holocaust, the boy that did not survive the Holocaust. His parents cherish the picture of this son. They recall the memory their son as the perfect boy he was. This perfection plagues Arties. He feels that he is constantly competing with a ghost to gain the approval of his parents. His brother was a mere five or six when he died, allowing him to be the picture of perfection to his parents. Richieu would not have chosen the life Artie had chosen, he would have â€Å"married a rich Jew,† and known the suffering that his parents knew. Richieu is the missing generational link from Artie to his parents. He, as a son, would be able to relate to Artie and his existence before the Holocaust creates a shared history. However, his death pushes Artie further from his parents, because now Artie must face a brother he never met in order to prove himself a worthy son in the eyes of his parents. As he s ees it, he can never measure up to the perfection of his ghost brother – a person who symbolizes the happiness his parents knew before the war even began. The Holocaust is a part of Artie’s family history. That fact will always remain, but it is a part of their history that Artie cannot truly relate to. His interpretations, as he views them, are inadequate renderings of horror he will never know. Due to this view on the Holocaust, and his parents’ life experience Artie continually feels inept and disconnected from his family. His is plagued by inadequacy in his work, compared to his ghost-brother, and in his comparative life accomplishments in relation to the survival of his parents. Artie attempts to understand the event, the history, that has shaped his life, but this understanding may be something out of his reach.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) - 1312 Words

Justin Terhune English Composition Instructor Coleman 30th June 2015 #22 a day 2015Across the US, it is estimated that 22 veterans commit suicide a day. This is a shocking and disturbing number. And what is even more alarming is that this statistic doesn’t include active-duty members. Between January and March of this year 75 active-duty Soldiers have taken their own life. These numbers are from the Pentagon’s quarterly Suicide Event Report. Veterans are returning from an active combat theater and taking their own lives at an alarming rate. Why are so many soldiers committing suicide? There is no real definitive answer on why there has been such a spike in soldier’s suicide. The Pentagon believes that one underlining factor is PTSD, in conjunction to having experienced a TBI. PTSD is an acronym for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and TBI is Traumatic Brain Injury. PTSD has only been accepted and researched in depth for the past thirty years. It came to light five years after the last American boot was withdrawn from Vietnam. During the Vietnam-era, the doctors and their staff were unprepared for the influx of veterans returning from an active theater. They never took an account of their combat experience when the veteran was hospitalized, they didn’t do it for the WWII, or Korean War vets either. A lot of the Psychology and Psychiatric trainees were drafted for the war as well. While the PTSD diagnostic was still in the infancy stages, there reallyShow MoreRelatedPost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )990 Words   |  4 PagesPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common anxiety disorder characterized by chronic physical arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts and images of the traumatic event, and avoidance of things that can call the traumatic event into mind (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, Nock, 2014). About 7 percent of Americans suffer from PTSD. Family members of victims can also develop PTSD and it can occur in people of any age. The diagnosis for PTSD requires one or more symptoms to beRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1471 Words   |  6 PagesRunning head: POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 1 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Student’s Name Course Title School Name April 12, 2017 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental disorder that many people are facing every day, and it appears to become more prevalent. This disorder is mainly caused by going through or experiencing a traumatic event, and its risk of may be increased by issuesRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1401 Words   |  6 PagesAccording to the Mayo-Clinic Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, commonly known as PTSD is defined as â€Å"Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that s triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event† (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014). Post Traumatic Stress disorder can prevent one from living a normal, healthy life. In 2014, Chris Kyle playedRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1198 Words   |  5 Pages Post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) is a mental illness that is triggered by witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event. â€Å"PTSD was first brought to public attention in relation to war veterans, but it can result from a variety of traumatic incidents, such as mugging, rape, torture, being kidnapped or held captive, child abuse, car accidents, train wrecks, plane crashes, bombings, or natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes(NIMH,2015).† PTSD is recognized as a psychobiological mentalRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1423 Words   |  6 Pages Mental diseases and disorders have been around since humans have been inhabiting earth. The field of science tasked with diagnosing and treating these disorders is something that is always evolving. One of the most prevalent disorders in our society but has only recently been acknowledged is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Proper and professional diagnosis and definitions of PTSD was first introduced by the American Psychiatric Association(APA) in the third edition of the Diagnostic andRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1162 Words   |  5 PagesSocial Identity, Groups, and PTSD In 1980, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD,) was officially categorized as a mental disorder even though after three decades it is still seen as controversial. The controversy is mainly founded around the relationship between post-traumatic stress (PTS) and politics. The author believes that a group level analysis will assist in understanding the contradictory positions in the debate of whether or not PTSD is a true disorder. The literature regarding this topicRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1550 Words   |  7 PagesPost Traumatic Stress Disorder â€Å"PTSD is a disorder that develops in certain people who have experienced a shocking, traumatic, or dangerous event† (National Institute of Mental Health). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has always existed, PTSD was once considered a psychological condition of combat veterans who were â€Å"shocked† by and unable to face their experiences on the battlefield. Much of the general public and many mental health professionals doubted whether PTSD was a true disorder (NIMH)Read MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )944 Words   |  4 Pageswith Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Stats). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a mental disorder common found in veterans who came back from war. We can express our appreciation to our veterans by creating more support programs, help them go back to what they enjoy the most, and let them know we view them as a human not a disgrace. According to the National Care of PTSD, a government created program, published an article and provides the basic definition and common symptoms of PTSD. Post-traumaticRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1780 Words   |  8 Pagesmental illnesses. One such illness is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental illness that affects a person’s sympathetic nervous system response. A more common name for this response is the fight or flight response. In a person not affected by post-traumatic stress disorder this response activates only in times of great stress or life threatening situations. â€Å"If the fight or flight is successful, the traumatic stress will usually be released or dissipatedRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1444 Words   |  6 PagesYim – Human Stress 2 December 2014 PTSD in War Veterans Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition that is fairly common with individuals that have experienced trauma, especially war veterans. One in five war veterans that have done service in the Iraq or Afghanistan war are diagnosed with PTSD. My group decided to focus on PTSD in war veterans because it is still a controversial part of stressful circumstances that needs further discussion. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD amongst war

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Theories Of Albert Bandura Essay - 834 Words

Albert Bandura is a psychologist who states that behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. He believes that humans are â€Å"active information processors† and connects their behavior and consequences. He didn t believe that direct reinforcement could lead to any type of learning. Instead, his theory stated that learning occurs simply by observing the actions of others. Children observe any influential models such as parents, teachers, siblings and peers around them. which connects to his theory about how a child is more likely to imitate those people it perceives as similar to itself like those of the same sex. Bandura’s theory describes the majority of what I observed when I went to Montgomery Child Care Association. I arrived there at 9:00 AM as the children were starting to enter the building. The classes were separated by names. The one I was in was called â€Å"The Dinosaur class†. The children began to remove their jackets and hang it in their individual cabinets as they had seen the teachers doing. There were three adults and twenty, two to three year olds. One of the teacher began the day by showing half the kids magic tricks. First, she put glue in a water bottle and put a thick black paper in it. She then began to shake it rapidly. She pulled out the black paper that is now in the form of spiders. The five children observed what she was doing and began to copy her to do the same. The children were very fascinated andShow MoreRelatedTheories Of Albert Bandura889 Words   |  4 Pages The Theories of Albert Bandura I chose to research Albert Bandura. Albert is a contemporary psychologist specializing in development and educational psychology. A lot of his work revolves around the social learning theory. He is one of the most widely- cited psychologists of all time. He was born in Alberta, Canada in a small town of Mundare. He was the youngest of six children, two of his siblings died when they were young one from a hunting accidentRead MoreEssay on The Theories of Albert Bandura804 Words   |  4 PagesThe Theories of Albert Bandura Albert Bandura was influenced by behaviorism while at the University of Iowa studying for his PhD in the early 1950s, he developed his own theories called reciprocal determinism, he believed that not only does the environment influence behavior, but behavior influences the environment, or to put it in his own words ’the world and a persons behavior cause each other‘. Bandura is often considered a ‘father’ of the cognitive movement,Read MoreThe Social Cognitive Theory Of Albert Bandura1012 Words   |  5 PagesThe Social Cognitive Theory of Albert Bandura Albert Bandura is well known for his accomplishments and scientific contributions to the world of psychology. His research has helped to explain how individuals in a society are influenced by other individuals in the same society. It has also helped in understanding how external factors can influence’s ones feelings of self-worth. Albert Bandura was born in Alberta, Canada on December 5, 1925. Throughout his childhood, Bandura was part of a schoolRead MoreAlbert Bandura Social Learning Theory1060 Words   |  5 Pageswith Albert Bandura’s cognitive-behavioral â€Å"Modeling† approach. This research shows that although video game violence may condone aggressive behavior,  it is not  the only factor triggering individuals to act aggressively or perform violent acts.   The â€Å"Modeling† Approach Social Learning Theory In the early 1970’s, Albert Bandura and a team of researchers analyzed behavior and its environmental stimuli. Their groundbreaking conceptual and empirical evidence founded a new socio-cognitive theory of learningRead MoreAlbert Bandura Social Cognitive Theory3359 Words   |  14 PagesAlbert Bandura amp; Social Cognitive Theory Denise A. Vega Liberty University PSYC 341 July 1, 2012 Professor Timothy Bouman Abstract The contributions Albert Bandura made to the understanding of social learning have led to further investigation and new findings. Social Cognitive Theory is Bandura’s greatest contribution to social, cognitive, and abnormal psychology. It has led to a greater understanding of human behavior and how humans learn behavior in a social context. UltimatelyRead MoreThe Theory Of Self Efficacy By Albert Bandura Essay733 Words   |  3 PagesChamberlain Institute of Review Board to the end of February 2017. Theoretical Framework The theory of self-efficacy by Albert Bandura was selected to guide the development of the proposed EBP project. The term self-efficacy describes a person’s belief in his or her ability to effectively carry out a particular task or produce a certain effect (Bandura, 1994). The fundamental argument in the self-efficacy theory is that individuals with a high level of self-efficacy are more likely to perform certainRead MoreApplying the Social Cognitive Theory of Albert Bandura1070 Words   |  5 Pagesin an appeal to Mr. Keller. Im not a good student. Give me P.E. or art over this stuff any day! If we apply Albert Banduras social cognitive theory in her comment I just cant do this writing stuff how does Banduras theory help us to understand Annie? According, the Social Cognitive Theory of Albert Bandura which combines both behavioral and cognitive philosophies to form his theory of modeling, or observational learning states that human personality is an interaction between the e nvironmentRead MoreAlbert Bandura s Theory Of Observational Learning1397 Words   |  6 PagesIntro Today, I will be talking about the famous psychologist Albert Bandura. Who is Albert Bandura We have obviously learned about him in the previous unit, so can anyone refresh our memories of who he is and what did he do. Yes, it’s the guy who conducted the Bobo doll experiment which reflected how children saw the adults beating up the doll, and when the kids went in, they did the same, which proves his theory of observational learning. Also, do you remember the 4 processes of observation:Read MoreAlbert Bandura s Theory Of Radical Behaviorism Theory2011 Words   |  9 Pagesconstructs and theories. Importantly, the condition of parsimony in itself presents a risk, potentially placing an unnecessary limitation, when a more complex explanation may better reflect the overall complex nature of the fundamental underlying concept that is under scrutiny (Epstein, 1984). Albert Bandura s social cognitive theory and B. F. Skinner s theory of radical behaviourism have provided two of the most influential contributions to psychology, and when examining Skinner and Bandura s theoriesRead MoreAlbert Bandura s Social Cognitive Theory926 Words   |  4 Pages did a lot of observing. Every observation and experience helped with his choices of actions. Albert Bandura s Social Cognitive Theory will explain how R.J. s behavior was caused by his past. Albert Bandura s Social Cognitive Theory explains that people develops a skill or habit based on what they observed during social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences (Santrock, 2011). Bandura uses a model to explain the factors and how they connect between the environment, person, and

Superannuation Tax Concessions Poorly Targeted

Question: Discuss about the Superannuation Tax Concessions Poorly Targeted. Answer: Introduction It is considered that any country which possesses a sound taxation system has stable economic growth because it helps the government to collect a sizable income from the citizens of the country in tax. In the previous times, the government needed reasonably low funds as compared to the present scenario due to manifold increase in government functions. The initial requirements were limited only to the security of the citizens. However, in the current times, the responsibilities are much wider and thus, the administration wants sizable funds to dispel these. There are many ways for collection of requisite funds but the most suitable, continuous and appropriate source is through taxation (Treasury, nd). It can be stated on the basis of the above facts that analysis of the present taxation system is imperative in regards to determine the array of the current objectives of the same. A critical analysis will also be conducted in this research essay in order to evaluate the current tax regu lation and status of the tax system in Australia. The relevant suggestions will also be provided to sustain a more sound taxation structure. Central Objectives of the Existing Taxation System The funds collected through taxation are considered the main resource for the government in order to sustain the expenses incurred on the public amenities. However, this taxation system is not simple and thus, not easy to operate because the aim of the government is not limited to collection of revenue. The government has to collect the requisite funds from the taxpayers and meanwhile has to take care that there would not be any overburden on the taxpayers. It is essential on the part of the government to maintain a delicate equilibrium between these two aims in regards to ensure that there would be an effective tax scheme along with satisfaction of taxpayers (Treasury, nd). It is pivotal to review and analyse the tax system in a periodic manner so that the government ascertains whether the respective provisions of the tax system are effectively meeting the goals and objectives. Moreover, the government also makes necessary amendments required to make the tax process more effective a nd cause less tax burden on the residents (ACOSS, 2015). Prudent allocation of the scarce economic resources as per national priorities is another imperative goal of the government, which is essentially carried with the help of differential tax rates applicable. The government varies the tax rate for product to product or service to service as per the consumption pattern or type of the product or service. This is termed as differential tax rate process. The variation in the tax rate (differential tax rate) causes different pattern of the burden on the resident. This can be viewed with the help of an example. If government wants to lower down the consumption of narcotic products (tobacco, cigarettes) in the country, they usually increase the tax burden on such products. Similarly, minimum tax burden on the products or service is incorporated by the government, whose consumption needs to be expanded. These variations in the consumption pattern by the government causes shift in the manufacturing pattern and thus, help the government to utiliz e the economic resources in more effective way (Treasury, nd). Taxation is also essential for lowering the difference between the financial status of the individuals (poor and rich people). The government always wants to reduce this difference and hence, the income of the individuals is redistributed through taxation system. To incorporate this scheme, the government establishes a progressive tax structure, which levies higher tax rate on those individuals with high income level as compared to the poor people. This scheme is essentially for collection of significant portion of the income (tax) from the rich tax residents which then could be utilized to provide the necessary public services to the deprived residents. This progressive tax rate scheme not only brings in high revenues to the government but also improves the purchasing capabilities of the poor individuals (CoA, 2008). The government also has put in place a transfer system, which facilitates the requisite services to the poor people by transferring the significant tax amount to the lo cal or state government to function the same. This tax transfer system supports the needy individuals like children, old age people and handicapped and maintained a social security to them (CoA, 2015). Evaluation of the Current Tax System In a bid to enhance the revenue from taxation, the Federal government has incorporated additional taxes in the tax system particularly the following in the last two decades of the 20th century. Capital gains tax (CGT) Goods and service tax (GST) Mixed results have been obtained from adoption of the new taxes in the system. On one hand, these have led to significant increments in the revenue but on the other hand have contributed to increased complexity in the current tax system. The government has held discussions with the stakeholders to minimize the complexity and streamline the tax system. However, this has not proved to be very effective (ACTU, 2011). This complexity causes very high costs (billions of dollars in terms of compliance cost) for the potential taxpayers and thus adversely impacts their willingness to pay taxes besides enhancing the overall burden. The below illustrated graph provides an overview about the average filling cost by the Australian taxpayers in the past decade (CoA, 2015). The compliance costs have sharply increased during the time period 2000-2010. The government has lost some financial resources in the form of compliance costs. Moreover, the taxpayers are not willingly supporting the tax regime due to high compliance cost and hence try to find ways to escape tax liability. It has also been observed that the obscurity in the tax system causes negative effects in regards to fulfilling the central objectives of government (ACOSS, 2015). This is apparent in the form of tax incentives such as CGT exemption and negative gearing provided for enabling affordable housing for the poor. These kinds of provisions are most of the time counter-productive as the rich individuals invest in real estate, which causes boom in price of the houses by enhancing the overall demand. Thereby, the poor persons are unable to purchase the house and even cannot afford to rent a house. Further, the wealthy individuals affordability of houses is not adversely impacted. There are two major consequences of this provision especially faced by the Federal Government. The first is that the government has issued significant tax expenditure and thus, results in huge loss of revenues running into billions of dollars. Additionally, the house affordability is adversely impacted and house rents keep on climbing as a result of which the government has to provide incremental rent assistance to the downtrodden (ACOSS, 2015). The IMF suggests that in order to achieve a sound system of taxation, one should reduce the tax expenditure because inappropriate tax expenditure causes erosion of its efficiency in the tax system. However, the recommendation proposed by the IMFs has not been adopted by the Australian policymakers and thus results in high tax expenditure. The below mentioned graph illustrates the high tax expenditure incorporated by the Australian government as compared to the other countries (Thornbill, 2015). On the basis of the above facts, it can be cited that the current taxation and transfer system of the Australian government is quite complicated and has failed to do justice with the respective central objectives of taxation system as discussed earlier. Recommendations It has been found that there are many taxes in the current taxation regime which have very limited contribution to the tax revenue but cause significant complexity in the tax system. Therefore, it is essential to lower down such taxes and focus only on those taxes, which have high contribution to the tax revenues. It has considered that there are four basic taxes, which leads to approximately 90% of the total tax revenues. Thereby, the central aim of the government should be to sustain these taxes more efficiently. These four basic taxes are as highlighted below (Treasury, 2013). Tax imposed on income of the taxpayers i.e. both individuals and businesses Rent tax particularly for usage of state held economic resources in the form of royalty Goods and service tax (GST) Capital gains tax ( CGT) Further, taxes rather than the above mentioned taxes must be eliminated in order to make effective and simple tax system. The other critical aspect is to minimise the excessive compliance costs.. It has found that in regards to resolve the above issue, one should increase the maximum limit on individual tax exception to $25,000. The amount of compliance costs are much higher than the tax amount paid by the taxpayers whose, income is lesser than the above mentioned amount. Hence, the end result is counter productive (ACTU, 2011). In the process of simplifying the tax system, the government should sanction the offsets. Also, the respective payments of the employees should be decided on the basis of the benchmark rate. Additionally, reasonable participation payments need to be extended to the concerned labour force, which are not being able to participate. The collected tax revenue must be offered to the specified population based on the various threshold limits. Moreover, the transfer system should be automatic indexed to inflation so as to ensure that the transfer payments take into consideration the co st of living (CoA, 2015). It is pivotal to reduce the corporate tax rate gradually from 30% to 25% in order to sustain significant investment and ventures in Australia. The requisite modification and review is required in the dividend assertion policy with reference to corresponding policies in the OECD countries (BCA, 2014). It is essential to reduce the additional tax revenue losses which would be incurred by reduction in corporate tax rate and thus, must be counterbalanced with the rationalisation of the tax expenses. The net tax can be enhanced by increasing the female contribution, which can be improved by providing low cost (affordable) child care services for all category individuals. Diversification in the human resources also needs to be improved, which can be obtained by providing the financial help and several employment opportunities to the disabled, skilled and disadvantaged group of individuals (CoA, 2008). The existing transfer system must be modified, which includes the pension distribution system, family assistance scheme and so on. In the modern age, asset testing technique is used to extend the pension and the respective allowance to the population, which at times is inappropriate. Thus, effective steps must be taken for the family assistance policies, which contains the fair transfer of the fund to the needy and has to be distributed as per the age group and necessity of the children (CoA, 2008). It is noteworthy that there are several incompetent taxes in the current state tax structure. Further, there is inadequacy on imposing GST especially on the monetary services and thus, need to be replaced by a specified monetary services tax. This can be implemented with support of the concerned parties and authorities. The respective payment system must be substituted with the source rent tax with a rate of 40% per annum (Treasury, 2013). These are essential recommendations for the bette rment of the existing taxation and tax transfer system. These measures would enlarge the annual tax revenue along with lowering the tax burden on the Australian taxpayers. Conclusion It can be concluded on the basis of the stated arguments and research analysis that the existing tax and tax transfer system has several objectives, which include fair and effective distribution of the economic resources, enlargement of the tax revenue, efficient redistribution of the income along with the dispersion of the funds to the needy and helpless group of individuals. Based on the analysis, it can be cited that the existing taxation system is considerably complex and is overburdening for the taxpayers. Moreover, the system at times is inefficient in order to satisfy the objectives of the government. Therefore, it is essential to adopt the requisite amendments in the existing taxation and tax transfer system to make it more simplified and effective. References ACTU 2011, Paying our Way: Personal income tax in Australia. Australia Tax Paper No.4 , pp. 4-37 BCA 2014, The future of tax, Business Council of Australia, Available online from (Accessed on December 5, 2016) CoA 2008, Architecture of Australias tax and transfer system, Commonwealth of Australia, Available online from downloads/report/architecture_of_australias_tax_and_transfer_system_revised.pdf (Accessed on December 5, 2016) CoA 2015, Tax Discussion Paper, Commonwealth of Australia, Available online from (Accessed on December 5, 2016) Treasury nd, 2.4 The objectives of taxation, Australian Government, Available online from (Accessed on December 5, 2016) Treasury 2013, 2.10 Administration of the tax?transfer system, Australian Government, Available online from (Accessed on December 5, 2016) ACOSS 2015, Fuel on the Fire, Australian Council of Social Service, Available online from (Accessed on December 5, 2016) Smith, L. 2015, Superannuation tax concessions poorly targeted: ACOSS, Sole Purpose Test Blog, Available online from (Accessed on December 5, 2016) Smith, G. 2013, Australian tax reform: Post-Henry, CEDA Council on Economic Policy, Available online from (Accessed on December 5, 2016) Thornbill, A. 2015, Our tax systems not so progressive ACOSS, Private Briefing Website, Available online from (Accessed on December 5, 2016)

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Public School vs. Private School Education

Introduction The choice of the best school is the eternal problem for all parents. Many debates have occurred on this basis. Public and private schools vary in numerous aspects. Nevertheless, the most significant reason for parents’ choice of public schools is the cost of studying at private schools. Although public schools are free for all students, private schools are better for pupils because of the profound approach to studying and the effective environment for education.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Public School vs. Private School Education specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The comparison of public and private schools The determination of the best type of school can be rather a challenging task. There are both advantages and disadvantages in the public and private sector of education. It is necessary to compare the schools on the basis of several significant factors. Quality of education The school program and teachers’ qualifications predetermine the quality of teaching. Thus, public schools should follow the standards defined by the national curriculum. Private schools can offer a wider choice of subjects to be taught. For instance, some schools include specific topics in their programs such as sexual or religious education of children. Some parents may choose the particular school because its basis meets their principles and understanding of the world. Besides, the teacher in private schools is free to choose thy ways of presenting new material. However, some subjects such as mathematics, history, and science are obligatory in both types of schools. Private schools demonstrate the better quality of education because of their admission standards. Private schools accept students who pass necessary tests and prove that they have the desired level of knowledge. Such a selection enhances the quality expectations. Public schools have to accept all students regardless of t he level of their knowledge. Very often, this fact impedes the achievement of good academic results (Kennedy par. 6). Exposure to violence The level of violence in public schools is of primary concern to principals. There have been many cases of shooting in public schools. Consequently, public schools have to work on their security measures. It is also difficult to monitor the intentions and activities of all students in public schools. On the contrary, private schools are considered to be safer than public. It can be explained by several facts. As far as private schools do not have to accept all students, the risk for dangerous behaviors is lower. Also, it is easier to supervise pupils in private schools because they are less in number.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Class size The number of students who are taught is significant for the efficiency of education. In public schools, a lmost thirty students go to one class. Teachers face difficulty in approaching and engaging every student. The time devoted to the lesson is not enough for providing all pupils with opportunities to express themselves and answer. In private schools, the class is comprised of no more than twenty students. Thus, teachers have the possibility to monitor the academic achievements of every pupil in the class. During the lesson, the teacher can approach every student and evaluate his or her knowledge. Consequently, the teacher notices students who need more attention and can help them to catch up with others. Social development The school environment influences the social and moral development of students drastically. This environment includes the social support, the educational programs, relations with other peers, and teachers’ approaches to the presentation of new material. Strong relationships are essential for the efficient social development of the child. Thus, students are m ore likely to greet each other or help with different activities when they have positive feelings (National School Climate Center 1). It is rather difficult to define the type of school that is the best for the appropriate social development of children. The social development of children depends on the school environment. One cannot say that positive school environments are typical for private or public schools only. Public schools can be helpful because pupils have the possibility to communicate with many people. They can find many friends and develop positively. However, there is a risk that the students may find friends who will influence them negatively. Also, an enormous diversity of public schools’ society provides the opportunity to learn how to behave and communicate effectively in society. Private schools, at the same time, may have the better environment for the social development because of the limited number of learners. Administrators and school personnel can do their best to create the most efficient environment for pupils while it is not always possible in public schools. Cost The primary disadvantage of private school is their cost. They are much more expensive than public schools. The necessity to pay for private education limits the number of students whose parents can afford paying annual fees. Public schools are funded by local authorities and provide all students with the equal opportunity for studying.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Public School vs. Private School Education specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion A variety of aspects influences the choice of school. Private schools provide students with better academic opportunities in comparison to public one. Despite the fact that public schools require no tuition fees and can be useful for the development of social skills, private schools are better because of the high quality of education, a limited class size, and a low level of violence. Works Cited Kennedy, Robert. Comparison of Private and Public Schools. n.d. Web. National School Climate Center. School Climate and Moral and Social Development. 2013. Web. This essay on Public School vs. Private School Education was written and submitted by user Matthias Hansen to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.